EXTRACT FROM MUMUKSHU VYAVAHAARA PRAKARANAM
वसिष्टोवाच एतत्ते कथितं सर्वं ज्ञानावतरणं भुवि मया स्वमीहितं चैव कमलोद्भवचेष्टितम् ।
तदिदं परमं ज्ञानं श्रोतुं मम तवानघ भृशमुत्कण्ठितं चेतो महतः सुकृतोदयात् ।
Vasishta spoke: I have now told you how this knowledge descended down here, how I came to be here, and the context of this Knowledge-revelation by the Lotus-born.
Anagha! By the merit of your own good actions, your mind is now longing to hear this supreme knowledge from me.
रामोवाच कथं ब्रह्मन्भगवतो लोके ज्ञानावतारणे सर्गादनन्तरं बुद्धिः प्रवृत्ता परमेष्टिनः ।
Rama spoke: Brahman! How did Bhagavaan Brahmaa get the idea of revealing the Knowledge to the world, after the creation-work was done only (and not before)?
वसिष्टोवाच परमे ब्रह्मणि ब्रह्मा स्वभाववशतः स्वयं जातः स्पन्दमयो नित्यमूर्मिरंबुनिधाविव ।
Vasishta spoke: The Supreme Brahman state is like an ocean which has quivering as its very nature; and waves also appear by themselves. This Brahmaa rising from the Supreme is a form of action (like a wave) continuing like this (for this span of Creation.)
दृष्ट्वैवमातुरं सर्गं सर्गस्य सकलां गतिं भूतभविष्यस्थां ददर्श परमेश्वरः ।
He observed the Creation after creating it. He saw the people there suffering there because of ignorance. He then saw the plight they will be pushed to in future, and what made them suffer like this at the present, and how it was before this in the past.
सक्रियाक्रमकालस्य कृतादेः क्षय आगते मोहमालोच्य लोकानां कारुण्यमगमत्प्रभुः ।
ततो मामीश्वरः सृष्ट्वा ज्ञानेनायोज्य चासकृत्विससर्ज महीपीठं लोकस्याज्ञानशान्तये ।
He observed that at the end of Krta Yuga (or Satyuga), the world was caught in the delusion; and he felt compassionate. He then created me, bestowed me with knowledge, and immediately sent me to the world to remove the ignorance of the people.
यथाहं प्रहितस्तेन तथान्ये च महर्षयः सनत्कुमारप्रमुखा नारदाद्याश्च भूरिशः
क्रियाक्रमेण पुण्येन तथा ज्ञानक्रमेण च मनोमोहामयोन्नद्धमुद्धर्तुं लोकमीरिताः ।
क्रियाक्रमेण पुण्येन तथा ज्ञानक्रमेण च मनोमोहामयोन्नद्धमुद्धर्तुं लोकमीरिताः ।
Just like me, many more Sages like Naarada, SanatKumaara and others also were sent to the world and told to save those overpowered by the disease of mind namely delusion, by teaching them the sacred methods of performing actions and gaining knowledge.
महर्षिभिस्ततस्तैस्तैर्क्षीणे कृतयुगे पुरा, क्रमात्क्रियाक्रमे शुद्धे पृथिव्यां तनुतां गते,
क्रियाकर्मविधानार्थं मर्यादानियमाय च, पृथग्देशविभागेन भूपालाः परिकल्पिताः ।
When those Maharshis also left the world at the end of KrtaYuga in the past, the purity of the actions performed on the earth diminished in course of time (due to greed and attachments).
Then, the rulers of the land (King) were designated to certain kingdoms; were allotted different regions in their care so that the people would perform sacred rites properly and not transgress the rules ordained by the Creator.
बहूनि स्मृतिशास्त्राणि यज्ञशास्त्राणि चावनौ धर्मकामार्थसिद्ध्यर्थं कल्पितान्युचितान्यथ ।
Various types of Smritis, Shaastras, and texts on performing Sacrifices were also conceived accordingly in the world to help fulfill the four goals of life Dharma, Artha, Kaama and Moksha.
कालचक्रे वहत्यस्मिन्स्ततो विगलिते क्रमे, प्रत्यहं भोजनपरे जने शाल्यर्जनोन्मुखे,
द्वन्द्वानि संप्रवृत्तानि विषयार्थं महीभुजां, दण्ड्यतां संप्रयातानि भूतानि भुवि भूरिशः ।
As the wheel of time moved on, all these modes of knowledge slowly faded out; each and every day was spent in eating and earning the food grains (engaged in getting more and more sense pleasures), ‘dvandas’ oppositions (couple of opposing conditions, or qualities like heat/cold, pain/pleasure etc.) arose for the enjoyments of kings. That brought about the punishing capacity of the Rulers, who were after amassing more and more wealth.
ततो युद्धं विना भूपा महीं पालयितुं क्षमाः न समर्थास्तदा याताः प्रजाभिः सह दैन्यतां ।
तेषां दैन्यापनोदार्थं सम्यग्दृष्टिक्रमाय च ततोsस्मदादिभिर्प्रोक्ता महत्यो ज्ञानदृष्टयः ।
The kings then were not able to rule peacefully and capably without battling their enemies; and attained wretched states along with their people.
In order to raise them from their wretched states and for their proper understanding, persons like me revealed the method of Knowledge to them.
अध्यात्मविद्या तेनेयं पूर्वं राजसु वर्णिता तदनु प्रसृता लोके राजविद्येत्युदाहृता ।
राजविद्या राजगुह्यमध्यात्मज्ञानमुत्तमं ज्ञात्वा राघव राजानः परां निर्दुःखतां गताः ।
As this science of Self-Knowledge was first revealed to kings, it is known by the name ‘RaajaVidyaa’ (Knowledge imparted to the kings). Raaghava! Attaining the excellent knowledge of the essence of Aatman which was kept hidden within the royal crowd only and which became the knowledge reserved for kings, the kings attained the supreme state free of all sufferings.
अथ राजस्वतीतेषु बहुष्वमलकीर्तिष्वस्माद्दशरथाद्राम जातोsद्य त्वमिहावनौ ।
तव चातिप्रसन्नेsस्मिञ्जातं मनसि पावनं निर्निमित्तमिदं चारु वैराग्यमरिमर्दन ।
सर्वस्यैव हि सर्वस्य साधोरपि विवेकिनः निमित्तपूर्वं वैराग्यं जायते राम राजसं ।
इदं त्वपूर्वमुत्पन्नं चमत्कारकरं सतां तवानिमित्तं वैराग्यं सात्त्विकं स्वविवेकजम् ।
After many great kings of taintless fame have ruled and died, you are now born on this earth Rama, as the son of King Dasharatha.
Hey Vanquisher of enemies! Your mind is very pure and so this beautiful quality of dispassion rose in you naturally not induced by any life-tragedy.
For all the beings, for even all the good men endowed with discrimination, this dispassion usually appears for some reason or other as connected to worldly circumstance and it is termed Raajasic (caused by actions in the world). This dispassion seen in you is something never seen before in any one; it has created a miracle in the minds of many here; and it has appeared without any particular reason, and is born because of your discriminating ability; and is termed as Saatvic.
बीभत्सं विषयं दृष्ट्वा को नाम विरज्यते सतामुत्तमवैराग्यं विवेकादेव जायते ।
ते महान्तो महाप्राज्ञा निमित्तेन विनैव हि वैराग्यं जायते तेषां ह्यमलमानसम् ।
Who does not get dispassion by seeing the disgusting way of the world (as events connected to their lives)?
For the noble ones, dispassion of the excellent type rises because of discrimination alone.
Those are indeed great achievers and great Knowers, who develop dispassion in their taintless minds without any particular reason as such.
स्वविवेकचमत्कारपरामर्शविरक्तया राजते हि धिया जन्तुर्युवेव वरमालया ।
A man whose intellect is endowed with dispassion because of the charming analysis done through discrimination, shines like a young man adorned by the garland offered by his beloved.
परामृश्य विवेकेन संसाररचनामिमां वैराग्यं योsधिगच्छन्ति त एव पुरुषोत्तमाः ।
They alone are the truly excellent ones who attain dispassion by analyzing the workings of the universe through their discriminating power.
स्वविवेकवशादेव विचार्येदं पुनःपुनः इन्द्रजालं परित्याज्यं सबाह्याभ्यन्तरं बलात् ।
One should analyze all this again and again through discrimination and forcefully get rid of this illusion caused by sorcery (Maayaa) from both inside and outside.
श्मशानमापदं दैन्यं दृष्ट्वा को न विरज्यते तद्वैराग्यं परं श्रेयः स्वतो यदभिजायते ।
Who does not get dispassion when seeing the horrid state (of a corpse) to be attained at the crematorium?
That alone is to be termed as the dispassion leading to one’s welfare, which rises by itself.
अकृत्रिमविरागत्वं महत्वमलमागतः योग्योsसि ज्ञानसारस्य बीजस्येव मृदुस्थलम् ।
Being endowed naturally with a dispassionate disposition, you are qualified to receive the essence of Knowledge like the softened ground ready for the seed.
प्रसादात्परमेशस्य नाथस्य परमात्मनः त्वादृशस्य शुभा बुद्धिर्विवेकमनुधावति ।
By the grace of the Supreme Lord the Supreme Self, a mind pure like yours runs towards discrimination.
क्रियाक्रमेण महता तपसा नियमेन च दानेन तीर्थयात्राभिश्चिरकालं
विवेकतः दुष्कृते क्षयमापन्ने परमार्थविचारणे काकतालीययोगेन बुद्धिर्जन्तोर्प्रवर्तते ।
विवेकतः दुष्कृते क्षयमापन्ने परमार्थविचारणे काकतालीययोगेन बुद्धिर्जन्तोर्प्रवर्तते ।
(How do ordinary people get dispassion?)
After devotedly performing the rites, doing penance, suffering through some hard discipline practices, by regularly giving charities as a rite to be performed, after visiting many temples and holy places, for a long time, prompted by Viveka, then and then only the results of their selfish actions get nullified and a man gets an inclination towards the attainment of Self-knowledge randomly, as if by chance like the crow sitting and the Taala leaf falling.
क्रियापरास्तावदलं चक्रावर्तिभिरावृताः भ्रमन्तीह जना यावन्न पश्यन्ति परं पदम् ।
यथाभूतमिदं दृष्ट्वा संसारं तन्मयीं धियं परित्यज्य परं यान्ति निरालाना गजा इव ।
Those who are engaged in action as connected to worldly fulfillments only, keep rolling through lives as if stuck on a wheel till they realize the state of the Supreme. They then observe the world as it is with its many faults; renounce the thoughts about it and attain the Supreme state, like the elephant freed from the stake chained to it.
विषमेयमनन्तेह राम संसारसंसृतिर्देहयुक्तो महाजन्तुर्विना ज्ञानं न पश्यति ।
ज्ञानयुक्तिप्लवेनैव संसाराब्धिं सुदुस्तरं महाधियः समुत्तीर्णा निमेषेण रघूद्वह ।
The course of Samsaara is terrible and never-ending Rama! This huge animal who is caught in the identity of the body cannot understand this without knowledge.
Raghoodvaha! Those endowed with stabilized intelligence, cross over this
difficult to cross over, within a minute itself, sailing in the boat of
तामिमां ज्ञानयुक्तिं त्वं संसाराम्भोधितारिणीं शृणुष्वावहितो बुद्ध्या नित्यावहितया तया ।
Now you listen carefully to the instructions on Knowledge which will help you cross over the ocean of Samsaara, with full attention and analyze the statements thereof continuously in your mind.
यस्मादनन्तसंरम्भा जागत्यो दुःखभीतयः चिरायान्तर्दहन्यत्येता विना युक्तिमनिन्दिताम् ।
Without this blameless practice of Knowledge, these fears of sorrows of the world with their endless enterprises will burn the mind for long.
शीतवातातपादीनि द्वन्द्वदुःखानि राघव ज्ञानशक्तिं विना केन सह्यतां यान्ति साधुषु ।
Raaghava! Without the power of knowledge, how else can the noble men bear the sorrows of dual nature of the world like cold, wind, hot sun etc?
आपतन्ति प्रतिपदं यथाकालं दहन्ति च दुःखचिन्ता नरं मूढं तृणमग्निशिखा इव ।
प्राज्ञं विज्ञातविज्ञेयं सम्यग्दर्शनमाधयः न दहन्ति वनं वर्षसिक्तमग्निशिखा इव ।
At each and every step, at every moment, the worries of the problems burn a foolish man, like the fire flame burning a grass piece. The afflictions do not burn a wise man of understanding, who has known what is to be known (through Vichaara), and who has the correct vision of truth, like a fire flame cannot burn a forest drenched by the monsoon showers.
आधिव्याधिपरावर्ते संसारमरुमारुते क्षुभितेऽपि न तत्वज्ञो भज्यते कल्पवृक्षवत् ।
A Knower of the truth does not get blown off by the sand storms of Samsaara desert with their typhoons of mental and physical afflictions, like the Kalpa Vrksha.
तत्त्वं ज्ञातुमतो यत्नाद्धीमानेव हि धीमता प्रामाणिकः प्रबुद्धात्मा प्रष्टव्यः प्रणयान्वितम् ।
प्रामाणिकस्य पृष्टस्य वक्तुरुत्तमचेतसः यत्नेन वचनं ग्राह्यमंशुकेनेव कुंकुमम् ।
In order to understand the truth, a wise person should question only a man of wisdom, who has mastered all the scriptures and knows the truth, and not sparing any effort to please him.
With utmost effort like the red dye getting absorbed by the cloth, one should absorb with his mind, the words spoken by the teacher who had been questioned, who has an excellent mind, and who is well versed in all the scriptures.
अतत्त्वज्ञमनादेयवचनं वाग्विदां वर यः पृच्छति नरं तस्मान्नास्ति मूढतरोsपरः ।
Rama, you are the best of orators! There is no one more foolish than the one who questions a man who does not know the truth and speaks words that are confusing.
प्रामाणिकस्य तज्ज्ञस्य वक्तुः पृष्टस्य यत्नतः नानुतिष्टति यो वाक्यं नान्यस्तस्मान्नराधमः ।
If one does not practice the instructions of a person who has been questioned, who is well versed in all the scriptures and knows the truth, then also there is no one more wretched than him.
अज्ञतातज्ञते पूर्वं वक्तुर्निर्णीय कार्यतः यः करोति नरः प्रश्नं प्रच्छकः स महामतिः ।
That seeker is truly intelligent who first finds out the ignorance or knowledge level of the person to be questioned, and then approaches him with his doubts.
अनिर्णीय प्रवक्तारं बालं प्रश्नं करोति यः अधमः प्रच्छकः स स्यान्न महार्थस्य भाजनं ।
Without analyzing the knowledge level of the teacher he who questions a man who has not matured in knowledge, he indeed belongs to the worst kind and will never be able to reach the supreme goal ever.
पूर्वापरसमाधानक्षमबुद्धावनिन्दिते पृष्टं प्राज्ञेन वक्तव्यं नाधमे पशुधर्मिणि ।
The wise man should answer the query of a blameless person who is intelligent enough to determine the meanings of the statements given by the scriptures and the Guru; and not instruct a wretched one with animal behavior.
प्रामाणिकार्थयोग्यत्वं प्रच्छकस्याविचार्य च यो वक्ति तमिह प्राज्ञाः प्राहुर्मूढतरं नरं ।
A person, who instructs anyone without bothering about the capability of understanding in a student or his knowledge of scriptures, is known as the greatest idiot ever born.
त्वमतीव गुणश्लाघी प्रच्छको रघुनन्दन अहं च वक्तुं जानामि समो योगोयामावयोः ।
You are an excellent disciple with praiseworthy qualities, and you know how to ask questions RaghuNandana. I indeed know how to answer all your queries. We both are made for each other.
यदहं वच्मि तद्यत्नात्त्वया शब्दार्थकोविद एतद्वस्त्विति निर्णीय हृदि कार्यमखण्डितं ।
You are an expert in understanding the correct meaning conveyed by the words!
Therefore, whatever words I utter, you must try hard and understand the real meaning hidden in my statements, and absorb them in the heart without losing attention even for a moment.
महानसि विरक्तोsसि तत्त्वज्ञोsसि जनस्थितौ त्वयि चोक्तं लगत्यन्तः कुन्कुमाम्बु यथांशुके ।
Among this crowd of people, you are a person born in a noble family; you have already developed dispassion; you already know the illusory nature of the world.
Whatever I instruct you, I know that it will get absorbed by you like a cloth absorbing red dye.
उक्तार्थपरमा परमार्थविवेचिनी विशत्यर्थं तव प्रज्ञा जलमध्यमिवार्कभाः ।
The subtle meaning will be easily grasped by you; you are capable of grasping the knowledge supreme, the meanings will enter your understanding like the sun rays entering the center of the ocean waters.
यद्यद्वच्मि तदादेयं हृदि कार्यं प्रयत्नतः नोचेत्प्रष्टव्य एवाहं न त्वयेह निरर्थकम् ।
Whatever I say, that must be grasped fully by your mind with effort; otherwise you should not pose any question to me wastefully.
मनो हि चपलं राम संसारवनमर्कटं संशोध्य हृदि यत्नेन श्रोतव्या परमार्थगीः ।
Rama! Mind is fickle natured monkey of the Samsaara forest. The words referring to the supreme truth should be listened to with effort with proper analysis.
अविवेकिनमज्ञानमसज्जनरतिं जनं चिरं दूरतरे कृत्त्वा पूजनीया हि साधवः ।
Keep away from the company of the undiscriminating ignorant wicked people who dislike good company;
and adore only the noble ones.
नित्यं सज्जनसंपर्काद्विवेकोपजायते विवेकपादपस्यैव भोगमोक्षौ फले स्मृतौ ।
By the constant company of the good men, discrimination rises in the mind. This tree of discrimination
yields the fruit of both the worldly happiness and the Moksha also.
मोक्षद्वारे द्वारपालाश्चत्वार: परिकीर्तिताः शमो विचार: संतोषश्चतुर्थः साधुसंगमः ।
On the threshold of the palace of liberation are said to stand four door keepers; Shama, Vichaara, Samtosha and SaadhuSangama (calmness, rational analysis, contentment and the company of the good.
एते सेव्याः प्रयत्नेन चत्वारो द्वौ त्रयोsथवा द्वारमुध्घाटयन्त्येते मोक्षराजगृहे यथा ।
These four should be served with effort; all the four if possible, or only two at the most, or three at least.
They will break open the gate to liberation-mansion.
एकं वा सर्वयत्नेन प्राणान्स्त्यक्त्वा संश्रयेदेकस्मिन्वशगे यान्ति चत्वारोsपि वशं यतः ।
At least one of them should be befriended with utmost effort, even keeping the vital forces at stake; for, if at least one is fully controlled, the rest will soon follow suit.
सविवेको हि शास्त्रस्य ज्ञानस्य तपसः श्रुतेः भाजनं भूषणाकारो भास्करस्तेजसामिव ।
Only a person with discrimination is fit to receive the knowledge based on Vedas and scriptures and do the penance of knowledge. He is like an ornament worn on the head; and shines like the Sun shining in the midst of all other ordinary limited light-sources.
घनतामुपयातं हि प्रज्ञामान्द्यमचेतसां याति स्थावरतामंबु जाड्यात्पाषाणतामिव ।
A person without understanding has a dull and heavy intellect like the stagnant water hardened into stone.
त्वं तु राघव सौजन्शास्त्रार्थदृष्टिभिर्विकासितान्तःकरणः स्थितः पद्मेवोदये ।
Raaghava! Your mind has expanded by the understanding of scriptures and benevolence; and you are like the lotus at dawn.
इमं ज्ञानगिरं श्रोतुमवबोद्धुं न सन्मते अर्हस्युद्धतकर्णस्त्वं जन्तुर्वीणास्वनं यथा ।
Rama! You are endowed with a purified intellect. You are fit to listen and understand this instruction on knowledge like an animal who listens to the music of the Veenaa with its ears lifted upwards.
वैराग्याभ्यासयोगेन शमसौजन्यसंपदामर्जनां कुरुतां राम यत्र नाशो न विद्यते ।
Rama for a person, who is endowed with the practice of dispassion, and acquires the wealth of calmness and noble virtues, there is no destruction at all.
शास्त्रर्सज्जनसंसर्गपूर्वकैर्सतपोदमैरादौ संसारमुक्त्यर्थं प्रज्ञामेवाभिवर्धयेत् ।
One should first of all increase his understanding capability by the Scriptures, company of the noble, cultivation of discipline, and control of senses, if he wants to get freed from the Samsaara.
एतदेवास्य मौर्ख्यस्य परमं विद्धि नाशनं यदिदं प्रेक्ष्यते शास्त्रं किंचित्संस्कृतया धिया ।
Understand that this scripture alone leads to the destruction of the foolishness one has, even if he reads this text with a slightly disciplined intellect.
संसारविषवृक्षोऽयमेकमास्पदमापदां अज्ञं संमोहयेन्नित्यं मौर्ख्यं यत्नेन नाशयेत् ।
This is a poisonous tree of Samsaara, the one and only shelter of all the dangers. It will delude the ignorant man. Therefore one should destroy this foolishness.
दुराशासर्पगत्येन मौर्ख्येण हृदि वल्गता चेतः संकोचमायाति चर्माग्नाविव योजितम् ।
The mind which is shaking by the movement of the serpent of the selfish desires shrinks like the leather placed inside the fire.
प्राज्ञे यथार्थभूतेयं वस्तुदृष्टिर्प्रसीदति दृगिवेन्दौ निरंभोदे सकलामलमण्डले ।
Only a person with proper understanding can visualize the Truth like seeing the Moon in a cloudless pure expanse of the sky.
पूर्वापरविचारार्थचारुचातुर्यशालिनी सविकासा मतिर्यस्य पुमानिह कथ्यते ।
He alone truly deserves the term ‘Pumaan’ (intelligent man as compared to an animal), whose mind has expanded and has become clever by the analysis of the prior and subsequent facts of everything.
विकसितेन सितेन तमोमुचा वरविचारणशीतलरोचिषा
गुणवता हृदयेन विराजसे त्वममलेन नभः शशिना यथा ॥
With the white luster (of purity) spreading forth, removing the darkness (of ignorance), with the cool rays of excellent reasoning power, with a mind endowed with virtues, you shine beautifully like the sky by a taintless moon.