EXTRACT FROM MUMUKSHU VYAVAHAARA PRAKARANAM
STORIES AND EXAMPLES IN THIS GRANTHA ARE NOT TO BE DISREGARDED
शृणु तावदिदानीं त्वं कथ्यमानमिदं मया राघव ज्ञानविस्तारं बुद्धिसारतरान्तरं ।
Raaghava! Now listen attentively to my speech as I explain in detail this special knowledge which will reflect intermittently some extraordinary truths (which lead you up to the highest state of knowledge step by step.)
यथेदं श्रूयते शास्त्रं तामापातनिकां शृणु विचार्यते यथार्थोयं यथा च परिभाषया ।
When this scripture gets taught with required examples of stories and illustrations, as and when you hear the stories, listen to them with full attention and understand the discussion of the meanings, the purport of the usage of particular words, why it is taught, what it is leading to etc properly.
येनेहाननुभूतेsर्थे दृष्टेनार्थेन बोधनं बोधोपकारफलदं तं दृष्टान्तं विदुर्बुधाः ।
Drshtaanta (allegorical examples which explain abstract matters) according to the learned, bestows the fruit of understanding, since it is a method of teaching by using an incident or an event that is experienced here in our daily lives.
दृष्टान्तेन विना राम नापूर्वार्थोsवबुध्यते यथा दीपं विना रात्रौ भाण्डोपस्करणं गृहे ।
Rama! Without such a presentation of an ordinary day to day event as an example, the abstract knowledge cannot be grasped easily. Utensils in the house cannot be sorted out and arranged at night without the use of a light.
यैर्यैः काकुत्स्थ दृष्टान्तैस्त्वं मयेहावबोध्यसे सर्वे सकारणास्ते हि प्राप्यन्तु सदकारणं ।
Hey Rama born in the dynasty of noble Kaakutstha! With whatever allegorical examples are used by me to enlighten you, all are there for some purpose of explaining some abstract truth only (not for entertaining purposes), so that they cause the understanding of the causeless truth (even if these examples are taken from the world of unreal objects).
उपमानोपमेयानां कार्यकारणतोदिता वर्जयित्वा परं ब्रह्म सर्वेषामेव विद्यते ।
Except the state of Para Brahman, the ‘cause and effect connection seen in the compared and the subject of comparison’ is found in all the objects.
ब्रह्मोपदेशे दृष्टान्तो यस्तवेह हि कथ्यते एकदेशसधर्मत्वं तत्रान्तः परिगृह्यते ।
Whatever Drshtaanta is given in the process of the teaching, to make you understand the highest truth namely Brahman, you must grasp well as to, what is the common point in both the truth to be explained and the example given thereof.
यो यो नामेह दृष्टान्तो ब्रह्मतत्त्वावबोधने दीयते स स बोद्धव्यः स्वप्नजातो जगद्गतः ।
Whatever Drshtaanta is given, when explaining the principle of Brahman, you should understand that they belong to the ways of the world which are unreal like that of a dream.
एवं सति निराकारे ब्रह्मण्याकारवान्कथं दृष्टान्त इति नोद्यन्ति मूर्खवैकल्पिकोक्तयः ।
When it is so, ‘how the formless Brahman is described in an analogy with name and form’; such doubtful statements are forwarded by only the fools.
अन्यासिद्धविरुद्धादिदृग्दृष्टान्तप्रदूषणैर्स्वप्नोपमत्वाज्जगतः समुदेति न किंचन ।
Since the world and its objects are as unreal as those seen in the Svapna, the ‘flaws’ like the unproved, the opposing etc as referring to the objects, as presented by the logicians, have no relevance at all here.
(If an example is given, you cannot take the objects given in the example and show the flaws in them and argue that it is faulty; since objects are not important here, but only the meaning which is conveyed in the example, which helps you understand some abstract truth is to be accepted. (For example, if gold and bangle are mentioned, you cannot ask where the goldsmith is.)
अवस्तु पूर्वापरयोर्वर्तमाने विचारितं यथा जाग्रत्तथा स्वप्नः सिद्धमाबालमागतम् ।
From a child to a Siddha, it is an obvious fact that if analyzed well the pros and cons of any object, it is understood as unreal only, be it the Svapna or the Jaagrat.
स्वप्नसंकल्पनाध्यानवरशापौषधादिभिर्यथार्था इह दृष्टान्तास्तद्रूपत्वाज्जगत्स्थितेः ।
Sometimes the dream-event, a decision conceived, meditation, boon, curse all prove as causing some effect (as a mind-construction only); so the examples are based on such perceived things as the explanation of the world (and the world gets proved to be unreal like the Svapna).
मोक्षोपायकृता ग्रन्थकारेणाऽन्येऽपि ये कृताः ग्रन्थास्तेष्वियमेवैका व्यवस्था बोध्यबोधने ।
This Grantha is made for the purpose of teaching the path of attaining Moksha. Even in the other Granthas made by him (Vaalmiki), examples are used for explaining abstract matters alone.
स्वप्नाभत्वं च जगतः श्रुते शास्त्रेऽवबोध्यते, शीघ्रं न पार्यते वक्तुं वाक्किल क्रमवर्तिनी ।
The similarity of the world-state and the Svapna state is explained in this Shaastra based on the abstract truths of Upanishads; but it cannot be explained so fast, since the speech has to go in a methodical manner (as per the understanding capacity of the student.)
स्वप्नसंकल्पनाध्याननगराद्युपमं जगत्यतस्त एव दृष्टान्तास्तस्मात्सन्तीह नेतरे ।
Jagat is like a city seen in a dream, or conceived in the mind, or conceived in a meditation (when it is a form of mental worship). Therefore examples are to be taken from there only, and nowhere else.
अकारणे कारणता यद्बोधायोपमीयते न तत्र सर्वसाधर्म्यं संभवत्युपमाश्रमैः ।
Brahman is causeless; but the cause-factor is given in the examples to make one understand the truth of Brahman. You cannot ever try and get the causal factor as a common principle in Brahman and the world, through these examples.
उपमेयस्योपमानादेकांशेन सधर्मता अङ्गीकार्यावबोधाय धीमता निर्विवादिना ।
What truth is getting explained through the compared and comparable subject is to be understood by the intelligent student without interrupting the process through fruitless arguments based on dry logic.
अर्थावलोकने दीपादाभामात्रादृते किल न स्थानतैलवर्त्यादि किंचिदप्युपयुज्यते ।
एकदेशसमर्थत्वादुपमेयावबोधनमुपमानं करोत्यङ्ग दीपोऽर्थप्रभया यथा ।
When you are trying to see an object in darkness, you need the light only; the place, oil, wick etc. do not help except as co-existing factors.
Dear Rama (Anga)! A light shows where the object is, when it is directed at an object; so also, the analogy helps in revealing the common truth that can be grasped when the same factor is observed in the compared and the compared with.
दृष्टान्तस्यांशमात्रेण बोध्यबोधोदये सत्युपादेयतया ग्राह्यो महावाक्यार्थनिश्चयः ।
By the slightest grasp of the analogy presented as instruction the truth of Brahman which is the main purpose of the book, one should be able to accept the conclusion of the MahaaVaakyas (statements of Upanishads) properly.
न कुतार्किकतामेत्य नाशनीया प्रबुद्धता अनुभूत्यपलापान्तैरपवित्रैर्विकल्पितैः ।
One should not lose the understanding of the truths, by taking recourse to fallacious arguments; which push one away from the experience of the truth, which are not sacred (since they prove to be an indirect insult to Upanishad truths) and which rise out of perverted mental states.
विचारणावनुभवकारिवैरिणोऽपि वाङ्ग्मयं त्वनुगतमस्मदादिषु ।
स्त्रियोक्तमप्यपपरमार्थवैदिकं वचो वचःप्रलपनमेव नागमः ॥
The collection of words of an enemy also, if they reflect the experience that results through rational reasoning process is accepted by people like us who are into the bliss of the supreme.
The words of a dearest wife (or any relative or friend or father or teacher) that are against the truths of Vedas are just some world-patter only; and are not to be accepted as truths.
अस्माकमस्ति मतिरङ्ग तयेति सर्वशास्त्रैकवाक्यकरणं फलितं यतो यः
प्रातीतिकार्थमपशास्त्रनिजाङ्गपुष्टात्संवेदनादितरदस्ति ततः प्रमाणम् ।
Anga! What we say is the truth arrived through reason only and they are fructified in us as the essence of all Shaastras (based on the Vedas); whereas the ‘theory arrived at through pure logic’ as belonging to the words and meanings, and one’s own belief and conviction, and not in line with the Vedic thought, cannot be the proof of the Supreme truth.
विशिष्टांशसधर्मत्वमुपमानेषु गृह्यते को भेदः सर्वसादृश्ये तूपमानोपमेययोः ।
The exact common factor in the Upamaana (compared) and Upameya (compared with thing) are to taken into account; if everything is the same, then what is the difference between Upamaana and Upameya?
दृष्टान्तबुद्दावेकात्मज्ञानशास्त्रार्थवेदनात्महावाक्यार्थसंवित्त्या शान्तिर्निर्वाणमुच्यते ।
When the abstract truth is understood through an ordinary example seen in the world, the single essence of all the meanings of the Scriptures get understood; and by that knowledge of the great MahaaVaakyas (statements of Upanishads) the silent tranquil state is attained; and that alone is the Nirvaana state.
तस्मद्दृष्टान्तदार्ष्टान्तविकल्पोल्लसितैरलं यया कयाचिद्युक्त्या तु महावाक्यार्थमाश्रयेत् ।
Therefore, keeping out the unnecessary intervention of questioning the logical flaws in the examples and the truths explained by those examples; somehow you must try to find the truths of MahaaVaakyas through them.
शान्तिः श्रेयः परं विद्धि तत्प्राप्तौ यत्नवान्भव भोक्तव्यमोदनं प्राप्तं किं तत्सिद्धौ विकल्पनैः ।
Tranquil state (bereft of all perceptions) is the Supreme good to be attained.
Make effort to attain that only. When you have got the sweet dish that is ready to be eaten, why bother about the means of making it and criticize it? (You got the result on hand; so why bother about whether the example was flawed or inappropriate?)
अकारणैर्कारणिभिर्बोधार्थमुपमीयते उपमानैस्तूपमेयैः सदृशैरेकदेशतः ।
Thought not the cause, the cause is invented to make the student understand the truths (like telling a child to drink the medicine so that it will dream of a moon when asleep); by pointing out the similarity of a single factor in the Upamaana and Upameya.
स्थातव्यं नेह भोगेषु विवेकरहितात्मना उपलोदरसंजातपरिपीनान्धभेकवत् ।
Without the practice of Viveka, a person should not indulge himself in pleasures like a blind fat frog born inside a rock and staying there (as if that is the only world that is there).
दृष्टान्तैर्यत्नमाश्रित्य जेतव्यं परमं पदं विचारणवता भाव्यं शान्तिशास्त्रार्थशालिना ।By understanding the abstract truths through the examples by making full effort, one should win over the Supreme state, practicing Vichaara; and the tranquil state alone has to be conceived by the one who is after the correct interpretation of the word-meanings of the scripture.